Dermagic Express

miércoles, 31 de octubre de 2018

ARE THE MOSQUITOES INVOLVED IN THE TRANSMISSION OF LYME'S DISEASE? ./ MOSQUITOS Y ENFERMEDAD DE LYME


ARE THE MOSQUITOES INVOLVED IN THE TRANSMISSION OF LYME'S DISEASE ?


ESTAN LOS MOSQUITOS INVOLUCRADOS EN LA TRANSMISION DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE LYME ?








EDITORIAL ENGLISH
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Hello friends of the network, DERMAGIC EXPRESS with a super hot topic: ARE THE MOSQUITOES INVOLVED IN THE TRANSMISSION OF LYME'S DISEASE? A few years after the discovery of the Borrelia Burgorferi in 1981 by Willy Burgdorfer, some scientists began to suspect that mosquitoes and other insects could be involved in the spread of Lyme borreliosis; and specifically in 1985-1987 studies began to appear on this subject, some controversial, others more convincing of the fact that mosquitoes that feed on blood from animals contaminated with Borrelia, could be vectors of the disease and contribute to the epidemic that attacks the whole world today by this spirochete.

Ticks are always spoken of as the only and great vector, but today I bring you some references that will make you think that there is something “hidden” and perhaps not revealed about Lyme Borreliosis: mosquitoes as transmitting vectors.

Not to make it long I'm going to name the most outstanding aspects of some studies and I'll leave the references of the facts: 

Historically in the year 1961 Robert J.A. I first proved the experimental transmission of Borrelia, in this case Borrelia anserina, (discovered by Saknarof in the year 1891) by the hematophagous  insect Aedes aegypti in geese of the Caucasus, since then it has been isolated from the blood of infected geese, turkeys, ducks, fowls, partridges, crows and sparrows from all parts of Africa, Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Brazil, Egypt, East Indies, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, the U.S.S.R., Rumania and Turkey.

In 1985 Dolby et al. published in France a work of 4 Chronic Erythema Migrans (ECM) cases, where only 1 could be checked the sting by ticks, and raise the possibility that the transmission could have been by mosquitoes and flies (horseflies,  tabanid).

In 1987 Magnareli et al.  conducted a study in Connecticut, United States collecting mosquitoes, horse flies and deer flies, in total 18 species, which were tested for Borrelia Burgdorferi finding a percentage of positivity that varied between 2.9 and 14.3% for blood-sucking insects. They also placed in cages insects with hamsters not contaminated with Borrelia; 11 species of females contaminated with Borrelia Burgdorferi fed on the blood of the hamsters. The spirochete was not found in the hamsters, but one of them presented positive titers of anti-Borrelia antibodies.

From these years they continued publishing works in relation to this subject where it is demonstrated that in a low percentage the Borrelia Burgdorferi can be transmitted by mosquitoes,  horse flies, deer flies, and others.

It is important to note that most of the studies were conducted in Europe, being perhaps the most relevant those made in the Czech Republic, where among them, in one study 5% of the mosquitoes studied were shown contaminated with spirochetes and one of them corresponded to the strain (BR-84) identified as Borrelia Afzelii.

Another detail to highlight is that the CDC does not mention these blood-sucking insects as a possible transmitter of Lyme borreliosis, which, although being low in the percentage shown in the studies, could be a factor in the spread of this disease by the world.

Here I leave the bibliographical references that prove these facts and in the attach one of the species of mosquitoes in which the Borrelia Burgdorferi was found.

"Under the sun there is nothing hidden, and sooner or later the evidence appears that shows that what you tried to hide, became the evidence that became a truth"

Dr. José Lapenta Dermatologist
Dr. José .M Lapenta MD.


EDITORIAL ESPAÑOL
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Hola amigos de la red, DERMAGIC EXPRESS con un tema super caliente: ESTAN LOS MOSQUITOS INVOLUCRADOS EN LA TRANSMISION DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE LYME ?. Pocos años después de el descubrimiento de la Borrelia Burgorferi en 1.981 por Willy  Burgdorfer, algunos científicos comenzaron a sospechar que los mosquitos y otros insectos podían estar involucrados en la diseminación de la Borreliosis de Lyme; y específicamente en 1.985-1987 comenzaron a aparecer estudios sobre este tema, algunos controversiales, otros más convincentes del hecho que los mosquitos que se alimentan de sangre de los animales contaminados con la Borrelia, podrían ser vectores de la enfermedad y contribuir a la epidemia que ataca al mundo entero hoy día por esta espiroqueta.

Siempre se hablo de las garrapatas como el único y gran vector, pero hoy te traigo unas referencias que te harán pensar en que hay algo oculto y no develado quizá sobre la Borreliosis de  Lyme: los mosquitos como vectores transmisores.

Para no hacértelo largo te voy a nombrar los aspectos más resaltantes de algunos estudios y te dejare las referencias de los hechos:


Historicamente en el año 1961 Robert J.A. comprobo por primera vez la transmision experimental de la Borrelia, en este caso Borrelia anserina, (descubierta por Saknarof en el año 1891) por el insecto hematofago, Aedes Aegypti en gansos del caucaso,  desde entonces ha sido aislada de la sangre de gansos, pavos, patos, aves, perdices, cuervos y gorriones infectados de todas las partes de África, Australia, Australia. , Bulgaria, Brasil, Egipto, Indias Orientales, Alemania, Grecia, Hungría, India, URSS, Rumania y Turquía.

En 1985 Dolby y cols. publican en Francia un trabajo de 4 de Eritema crónico Migrans (ECM) donde n solo 1 se pudo comprobar la picadura por garrapatas, y se plantean la posibilidad de que la transmisión pudo haber sido por mosquitos y moscas voladoras (tábanos).

En 1.987 Magnareli y Cols. realizaron un estudio en Connecticut, Estados Unidos recolectando mosquitos, moscas de caballos y moscas de venado, en total 18 especies, a los cuales se les realizo test para Borrelia Burgdorferi encontrándose un porcentaje de positividad que vario entre el 2.9 y 14.3 % para insectos hematófagos. También colocaron en jaulas insectos con hamsters no contaminados con Borrelia;  11 espeses de hembras contaminadas con Borrelia Burgdorferi  se alimentaron de la sangre de los hamsters. No se encontró la espiroqueta en los hamsters, pero uno de ellos presento títulos positivos de anticuerpos anti-Borrelia.

A partir de estos años se continuaron publicando trabajos en relación a este tema donde se demuestra que en un porcentaje bajo la Borrelia Burgdorferi puede ser transmitida por mosquitos, moscas voladoras (tábanos), moscas de caballo y moscas de los venados.

Es importante destacar que la mayoría de los estudios fueron realizados en Europa,  siendo quizá los más relevantes los realizados en la Republica Checa, donde entre ellos,  en un estudio se demostró un 5% de los mosquitos estudiados contaminados con espiroquetas y una de ellas correspondió a la cepa (BR-84) identificada como Borrelia Afzelii.

Otro detalle a resaltar es que el CDC no menciona como posible agente transmisor de la Borreliosis de Lyme a estos insectos hematófagos, que aun siendo bajo el porcentaje demostrado en los estudios, podría o puede ser un factor más en la propagación de esta enfermedad por el mundo.

Aquí te dejo las referencias bibliográficas que comprueban estos hechos y en el attach una de las especies de los mosquitos en los que se encontró la Borrelia Burgdorferi.

" bajo el sol no hay nada oculto, y tarde o temprano aparece la evidencia que demuestra que lo que trataste de esconder, se transformo en la evidencia  que se convirtió en una verdad"

Dr. José Lapenta Dermatólogo
Dr. José .M Lapenta MD.



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BIBLIOGRPHICAL REFERENCES / REFERENCIAS BIBLOGRAFICAS
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