sábado, 15 de junio de 2019

HANTAVIRUS I, THE SPECIES AND THE RATS INVASION./ HANTAVIRUS I, LAS ESPECIES Y LA INVASION DE LAS RATAS


The Hantavirus I, The Species and The Rats invasion.

 

Los Hantavirus I, Las Especies y La invasion de las Ratas.








EDITORIAL ENGLISH 
===================
 
Hello friends of the DERMAGIC EXPRESS network today brings you a very interesting topic THE HANTAVIRUS I, THE SPECIES AND THE RATS INVASION, rodent borne zoonotic disease, a topic related to the aforementioned BUNYAVIRIDAE FAMILY virus. It is impressive the number of SPECIES found to date in relation to these HANTAVIRUS, which are practically spread throughout the globe, representing a mortality of 10 to 36% in those affected.

Many of them are benign for the man, it means that it has not been shown PATHOGENICITY or ability to produce disease in the HUMAN, but some of them produce the so-called HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME (HFRS) or EPIDEMIC NEPHROPATHY with a mortality of.10-12% and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY OR CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME (HPS) to which a mortality has been described between 25-36% in some countries.

The name HANTA VIRUS comes from the HANTAN RIVER area in SOUTH KOREA, where it was discovered by scientists in the late 1970s by the Korean virologist Ho-Wang Lee. And the American Karl M. Johnson.

Ho-Wang Lee described in Korea Seoul, The SEOUL HANTAVIRUS (SEOV) transmitted by rodents and causing the HEMORRHAGIC FEVER HANTAVIRUS WITH RENAL SYNDROME (HFRS) or EPIDEMIC NEPHROPATHY for the first time in 1.976


The main carriers or reservoirs of these viruses are RODENTS: mice and rats through urine, saliva, fluids and feces that are sprayed in the environment can infect you. In some cases bats European mole, shrews. And  European common vole are involved like hosts, but in the case of these two diseases that I mentioned the main natural reservoirs are RODENTS.

The HANTAVIRUS belong to the group of VIRUS TYPE RNA, order: NOT ASSIGNED, family BUNYAVIRIDAE, genus: HANTAVIRUS, Type of species: HANTAAN VIRUS with more than 50 SUBTYPES OR SPECIES which I place here and the country where they were discovered or described by first time.


I believe that you will be astonished of the number of HANTAVIRUS SPECIES described until today 2,017 !!!!

 
THE HANTA VIRUS SPECIES DESCRIBED UNTIL TODAY 2.017
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1.) Andes virus: Argentina and Chile; (1.997-1998)
2.) Amur virus:  Far East of Russia, China, and Korea. 2.002-2.004)
3.) Asama virus: Japan (2.008)
4.) Azagny virus:  west Africa (2012).
5.) Bayou virus: Southeastern United States. (1944)
6.) Black Creek Canal virus: Black Creek Canal area of Dade County, Florida in 1995.
7.) Bloodland Lake virus: Pulaski County, Missouri in 1994.
8.) Blue River virus: Jackson County, Missouri in 1995.
9..) Cano Delgadito virus: Caño Delgadito virus is a Hantavirus. It was discovered in the 1990s from rodent species in Los Llanos in Venezuela.
10.) Calabazo virus: Central América on the Azuero Peninsula of Panamá in early 2000.
11.) Carrizal virus: Guerrero, Mexico.
2012
12.) Catacamas virus: Honduras 2.006
13.) Choclo virus: 1999 in Western Panama.
14.) Dobrava-Belgrade VIRUS: Found in Dobrava Village, Slovenia, Yugoslavia It was subsequently isolated in striped field mice in Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe. It has also been found in Germany but the reservoir host there is unknown.
15.) El Moro Canyon virus:  El Moro Canyon in southeastern Colorado in 1995.
16. Gou virus: Zhejiang Province in 2000. China
16,) Hantaan River virus: Korea 1.976 date of war from years 1951-1.953 mortality 10-30%
17.) Huitzilac virus: Morelos and Guerrero, Mexico. 2.012
18.)
Imjin virus: Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005.
19.) Isla Vista virus: Santa Barbara County, California 1.995
20.) Khabarovsk virus: Far-east Russia. 1.996
21.) Laguna Negra virus: South America Brazil
22.) Limestone Canyon virus: The United States and South America.
23.) Magboi virus: Magboi Stream in eastern Sierra Leone in 2011
24.) Maripa virus: French Guiana 2.012
25.) Monongahela virus: Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia in 1985
26.) Montano virus: Morelos and Guerrero, Mexico. 2.012
27.) Mouyassue virus: Sierra Leone 2.012, Bats, share lineage with Magboi virus
28.) Muleshoe virus: Deaf Smith County, Texas in 1995
29.) Muju virus: Republic of Korea. 2.007
30.) New York virus: New York 2.013
31.) Nova virus: Hungary and France 2.014, no human infection has been discovered (European mole and bats).
32.) Oran virus: South America related to Andes virus
33.) Oxbow virus: Gresham, Oregon, in September 2003.
34.) Playa de Oro viruS: Mexican state of Colima, 2.004 2.008
35.) Prospect Hill virus: meadow vole found in Prospect Hill, Maryland for which it is named. 1.982-1987
36.) Puumala virus: in Scandinavia and Finland, although it has also been reported elsewhere in Northern Europe, Poland and Russia, 1.980
37,) Rockport virus: Rockport, Texas 2.011
38.)
Rio Mamore virus: Bolivia. 1.997
39.) Rio Segundo virus: Costa Rica, Related with Sin Nombre virus (nameless)
40.)
Sangassou virus: Guinea, West Africa in 2010, bat, moles, and shrews.
41.) Saaremaa virus: Found in striped field mouse in Slovakia. 2.006
42.) Seoul virus: Seoul Korea.
43.) Serang virus: Serang, Indonesia in 2.008.
44.) Sin Nombre virus (no name): It was first isolated in 1.993 from rodents collected near the home of one of the initial patients with HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME (HPS) in the Four Corners region of the western United States.
45.) Soochong virus: Korea August 1997
46.) Tanganya virus : Africa 2.007
47.) Thailand virus: Thai provinces, Nakhon Pathom and Nakhon Ratchasima, in Thailand 1994
48.) Thottapalayam virus: India in 1964.
49.) Topografov virus: Topografov River in the Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia. 1.996
50.) Tula VIRUS: first isolated from a European common vole (Microtus arvalis) found in Central Russia 1994
51.) Xuan Son virus: Pomona Vietnam 2.013

52.) Seewis virus: Germany
53.) asikkala virus: Germany

54.) Araraquara virus: Brazil
55.) Juquitiba virus: Brazil, possible lineage of the ARARAQUARA VIRUS
56.) Anajatuba Virus, Bermejo Virus, Jabora Virus, Lechiguanas virus, Maciel virus,  Oran virus, Pergamino virus, Rio Mearim Virus: Strains of the ANDES VIRUS: Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay.


Summarizing the countries involved so far are: Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Honduras, Venezuela, Panama, United States, Russia, China, Indonesia, Siberian, Thailand, Slovakia, Germany, Hungary, France, Poland, Korea, Vietnam, India, Mexico, Costa Rica, Scandinavia, Finland, Brazil, French Guiana, Japan, Africa and others

Other countries where species of HANTAVIRUS have been found: Holland, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Paraguay, Uruguay, England, Wales, Belgium, Sweden, Canada and Colombia.

It is estimated that in China between 1950 and 2007 there were 1.5 million cases per HANTAVIRUS, of which 46,000 died, in Russia there were 90,000, cases from 1996 to 2006, in Finland 32,000, between 2005 and 2010. 

In the United States up to January 2,017, 725 cases were reported, of which 697 occurred in the first outbreak in 1993, USA Hantavirus mortality averaged 36%. 

In French Guiana between 2008 and 2016, 5 cases of HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME (HPS) were reported from the MARIPA VIRUS, of which 4 died, 80% mortality.

In Argentina in an outbreak of 20 cases of PULMONARY SYNDROME (HPS) by HANTAVIRUS in 1997 the HUMAN-HUMAN transmission was demonstrated by the virus ANDES (ANDV).  

And here comes the following reflection: rodents, rats and mice known ancestrally from Ancient Rome and perhaps before, are spread throughout the PLANET and are transmitters of more than 26 diseases among which stand out BUBONIC PLAGUE (Yerinia Pestis), LEPTOSPIROSIS , SALMONELLOSIS, TAENIASIS, TOXOPLASMOSIS, TRICHINOSIS AND FEVER.

HANTAVIRUS IS DISSEMINATED THROUGH these rodents all over the planet, some of them LETAL, in the next edition I  will talk about the DISEASES, RODENTS and VIRUSES involved.

Greetings to all
 
Dr. Jose Lapenta. Dermatologo
Dr, Jose M. Lapenta MD.
 
 


EDITORIAL ESPAÑOL
=================
Hola amigos de la red DERMAGIC EXPRESS te trae hoy un tema bastante interesante LOS HANTAVIRUS I, LAS ESPECIES Y LA INVASION DE LAS RATAS, zoonosis transmitida por roedores, tema relacionado con los ya mencionados virus de la FAMILIA BUNYAVIRIDAE. Es impresionante la cantidad de ESPECIES encontradas hasta el día de hoy en relación a estos HANTA VIRUS, los cuales están prácticamente diseminados por todo el globo terráqueo, representando una mortalidad del 10 al 36% en los afectados.
 

Muchos de ellos son benignos para el hombre, quiere decir que no se ha demostrado PATOGENICIDAD o capacidad de producir enfermedad en el HUMANO, pero algunos de ellos producen la llamada FIEBRE HEMORRAGICA CON SINDROME RENAL (HFRS) o NEFROPATIA EPIDEMICA con una mortalidad del 10 al 12% y el SINDROME PULMONAR O CARDIOPULMONAR POR HANTAVIRUS (HPS). al cual se le ha descrito una mortalidad entre 25 y 35% en algunas regiones. 

El nombre de HANTA VIRUS proviene del área del RIO DE HANTAN en COREA DEL SUR, donde fue descubierto por los científicos a finales de los años 70 por el virologista Coreano Ho-Wang Lee. y Karl M. Johnson.  

Ho-Wang Lee describio el SEOUL HANTVIRUS (SEOV) transmitido por roedores y causante de la FIEBRE HEMORRAGICA HANTAVIRUS CON SINDROME RENAL (HFRS) o NEFROPATIA EPIDEMICA por primera vez. 

Los principales portadores o reservorios de estos virus son los ROEDORES: ratones y ratas a través de orina, saliva, fluidos y heces que pulverizadas en el ambiente pueden contagiarte. En algunos casos están involucrados murciélagos, tapir, musarañas y topillo campesino. pero en el caso de estas dos enfermedades que les mencione los reservorios principales naturales son ROEDORES. 

Los HANTAVIRUS pertenecen al grupo de VIRUS TIPO ARN, orden: NO ASIGNADO, familia BUNYAVIRIDAE, genus: HANTAVIRUS, Tipo de especie: HANTAAN VIRUS con más de 50 SUBTIPOS O especies las cuales te coloco aquí y el país donde fueron descubiertos o descritos por primera vez. 

Creo que te quedaras asombrado del número de ESPECIES DE HANTAVIRUS descritas hasta hoy día 2.017
 

LAS ESPECIES DE  HANTA VIRUS DESCRITAS HASTA HOY DIA 2.017:
=========================================================

1.) Andes virus: Argentina y Chile; (1.997-1998)
2.) Amur virus: Corea y china noreste, lejano Oriente de Rusia,  2.002-2.004)
3.) Asama virus: Japón (2.008)
4.) Azagny virus: África del este: (2012).
5.)
Bayou virus: Sureste de Estados unidos. (1944)
6.) Black Creek Canal virus: Black Creek Canal área  del Condado Dade, Florida en 1995.
7.) Bloodland Lake virus: Pulaski Condado, Missouri en 1994.
8.) Blue River virus: Condado de Jackson, Missouri en 1995.
9.) Cano Delgadito virus: Caño Delgadito virus es un hantavirus. Descubierto en los a
ños 90 en roedores en  Los Llanos en Venezuela.
10.) Calabazo virus: America Central  en la Península de Azuero Panamá en los años 2000.
11.) Carrizal VIRUS: Guerrero, México. 2012
12.) Catacamas virus: Honduras 2.006
13.) Choclo virus: 1999 en el Oeste de Panamá.
14.) Dobrava-Belgrade VIRUS: en la población de  Dobrava, Eslovenia, Yugoslavia. Subsecuentemente fue aislado en Rusia en el Ratón Rayado de Campo y otras partes del Este de Europa. También fue encontrado en Alemania pero el reservorio en este país se desconoce.
15.) El Moro Canyon virus: El Cañón Moro en el Sureste de Colorado en 1995.
16. Gou virus: En la provincia de Zhejiang China en el  2000.
16,) Hantaan River virus: Corea 1.976, data de la guerra años 1951-1.953 mortalidad 10-30%
17.) Huitzilac virus: Morelos y Guerrero, México. 2.012
18.) Imjin virus: Republica de Corea años 2004 y  2005.
19.) Isla Vista virus: Condado de Santa Barbará, California 1.995
20.) Khabarovsk virus: Lejano Oriente Rusia. 1.996
21.) Laguna Negra virus: Sur América Brasil
22.) Limestone Canyon virus: Estados Unidos y Suramérica.
23.) Magboi virus: Magboi Stream en el Este de Sierra Leona en 2011
24.) Maripa virus: Guayana Francesa 2.012
25.) Monongahela virus: Monongahela Bosque Nacional en el Oeste de Virginia en 1985
26.) Montano virus: Morelos y Guerrero, México. 2.012
27.) Mouyassue virus: Sierra Leona 2.012 Murciélago, comparte Linaje con Magboi virus.
28.) Muleshoe virus: Condado Deaf Smith, Texas en 1995
29.) Muju VIRUS: Republica DE Corea.
2.007
30.) New York virus: New York 2.013
31.)
Nova virus: Hungría y Francia  2.014 No se ha descrito infección en humanos (Tapir y Murciélagos).
32.) Oran virus: Sur  América relacionado con el Andes virus
33.) Oxbow virus: Gresham, Oregón, en Septiembre del 2003.
34.) Playa de Oro viruS: Estado de Colima México, 2.004 2.008
35.) Prospect Hill virus: Prospect Hill, Maryland del cual proviene su nombre. 1.982-1987
36.) Puumala virus: Escandinavia y Finlandia, 1980, aunque también ha sido reportado en cualquier parte de Norte de Europa, Polonia y Rusia.
37,) Rockport virus: Rockport, Texas 2.011
38.) Rio Mamore virus: Bolivia. 1.997
39.) Rio Segundo virus: Costa Rica, Relacionado con el Sin Nombre virus
40.) Sangassou virus: Guinea, Oeste de África en 2010. Murciélagos, Tapir y
musarañas.
41.) Saaremaa virus: Ratón rayado de campo en Eslovaquia. 2.006
42.) Seoul virus: Seúl Corea.
43.) Serang virus: Serang, Indonesia in 2008.
44.) Sin Nombre virus: Fue aislado por primera vez en 1993 de roedores en la región de Las Cuatro Esquinas en el Oeste de Los Estados Unidos en pacientes con el SINDROME PULMONAR POR HANTAVIRUS (HPS).
45.) Soochong virus: Corea Agosto 1997
46.) Tanganya VIRUS: África 2.007
47.) Thailand virus: Provincia de Thai, Nakhon Pathom y Nakhon Ratchasima, Tailandia en 1994
48.) Thottapalayam virus: India in 1964.
49.) Topografov virus: Topografov, rio en la Península de Taymyr Península, Siberia. 1.996
50.) Tula virus: Aislado por primera vez en Europa del Topillo campesino (Microtus arvalis) encontrado en Rusia Central en 1994
51.) Xuan Son virus: Pomona Vietnam 2.013

52.) Seewis virus: Alemania
53.) asikkala virus: Alemania.

54.) Araraquara virus: Brasil
55.) Juquitiba virus: Brasil, posible linaje del ARARAQUARA VIRUS
56.) Anajatuba Virus, Bermejo Virus, Jabora Virus, Lechiguanas virus, Maciel virus,  Oran virus, Pergamino virus, Rio Mearim Virus: Cepas del ANDES VIRUS: Argentina, Chile, Brasil, Uruguay, Paraguay.
 

Resumiendo los países hasta ahora involucrados son: Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Honduras, Venezuela, Panamá, Estados Unidos, Rusia, China, Indonesia, Siberia, Tailandia, Eslovaquia, Alemania, Hungría, Francia, Polonia, Corea, Vietnam, India, México, Costa Rica, Escandinavia, Finlandia, Brasil, Guayana Francesa, Japón, África y otros

Otros países donde se ha encontrado especies de HANTAVIRUS: Holanda, Bulgaria, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Inglaterra, Gales, Bélgica, Suecia Canadá y Colombia.


Se calcula que en China entre 1.950 y 2.007 hubo 1.5 millones de casos por HANTAVIRUS, de los cuales murieron 46.000, en Rusia hubo 90.000 mil casos desde 1.996 hasta 2.006 , en Finlandia 32.000 mil entre 2.005 y 2.010. 

En Estados Unidos hasta Enero de 2.017 se reportaron 725 casos de los cuales 697 ocurrieron en el primer brote en 1.993, la mortalidad en USA por Hantavirus promedia el 36%

En la Guayana Francesa entre 2.008 y 2016 se reportaron 5 casos de SINDROME PULMONAR POR HANTAVIRUS (HPS) por el VIRUS MARIPA, de los cuales 4 murieron, mortalidad 80% 

En Argentina en un brote de 20 casos de SINDROME PULMONAR(HPS) por HANTAVIRUS en 1.997 se demostro la transmision HUMANO-HUMANO, por el virus ANDES (ANDV). 

Y aquí viene la siguiente reflexión: los roedores , ratas y ratones conocidos ancestralmente desde la Antigua Roma y quizá antes, están diseminados por todo EL PLANETA y son transmisores de más de 26 enfermedades entre las que destacan la PESTE BUBONICA (yersinia Pestis), LEPTOSPIROSIS, SALMONELOSIS, TENIASIS, TOXOPLASMOSIS, TRIQUINOSIS Y FIEBRE.

Los HANTAVIRUS ESTAN DISEMINADOS A TRAVES
de estos roedores en todo el planeta, algunos de ellos LETALES, en la próxima edición TE hablare de las ENFERMEDADES, ROEDORES  y VIRUS involucrados

Saludos a Todos.

Dr. José Lapenta. Dermatologo

Dr, Jose M. Lapenta MD.
 

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 REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRAFICAS/ BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
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 1.) Country-wide seroprevalence studies on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus
 infections in general population of Bulgaria.
 2.) Serological Survey of Zoonotic Viruses in Invasive and Native Commensal Rodents in Senegal, West Africa.
 3.) Seoul hantavirus in brown rats in the Netherlands: implications for physicians--Epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment and diagnostics.
 4.) Co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba Hantavirus in Brazilian Cerrado.
 5.) Serogrouping and seroepidemiology of North European hantaviruses using a novel broadly targeted synthetic nucleoprotein antigen array.
 6.) [Hantaviruses in Germany: threat for zoo, pet, companion and farm animals?].
 7.) Hantavirus infections in Europe and their impact on public health.
 8.) Detection of different South American hantaviruses.
 9.) Spatial prediction and validation of zoonotic hazard through micro-habitat properties: where does Puumala hantavirus hole - up?
 10.) Hantaviruses and their hosts in Europe: reservoirs here and there, but not everywhere?
 11.) Habitat factors associated with bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and concomitant hantavirus in northern Sweden.
 12.) [Increase in the number of cases of epidemic nephropathy in Germany. Virological and
 ecological aspects].
 13.) A comparative epidemiological study of hantavirus infection in Japan and Far East Russia.
 14.) Puumala virus outbreak in Western Thuringia, Germany, 2010: epidemiology and strain identification.
 15.) Environmental conditions in favour of a hantavirus outbreak in 2015 in Germany?
 16.) Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Caused by Maripa Virus in French Guiana, 2008–2016.
 17.) An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: person-to-person transmission? Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia.
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 1.) Country-wide seroprevalence studies on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus
 infections in general population of Bulgaria.
 =======================================================================
 J Med Virol. 2017 Oct;89(10):1720-1725. doi: 10.1002/jmv.24868. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

 Christova I1, Panayotova E1, Trifonova I1, Taseva E1, Hristova T1, Ivanova V1.
 Author information

 1
 National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria.

 Abstract

 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and hantavirus infections are the two viral hemorrhagic fevers spread in Europe. To test actual circulation of CCHF virus (CCHFV) and hantaviruses in Bulgaria, we conducted country-wide seroepidemiological studies. Serum samples were collected prospectively from 1500 residents of all 28 districts in Bulgaria. CCHFV seroprevalence of 3.7% was revealed. Anamnesis for tick bites, contact with livestock, age over 40 years and residency in Haskovo district were found as risk factors. The highest CCHFV seroprevalence was observed in the known endemic districts in southeastern Bulgaria: Haskovo (28%) and Yambol (12%). Reactive samples were found in residents of 20 of the 28 districts in Bulgaria. In comparison with the previous studies, the data presented indicate that CCHFV increased substantially its circulation in the endemic regions and was introduced in many new areas. Hantavirus seroprevalence was based on results of the immunoblot and estimated as 3.1%. Surprisingly, contrary to all available data, Puumala virus seroprevalence rate was 2.3% versus 0.8% of Dobrava-Belgrade virus. Evidence for hantavirus IgG seropositivity was found in residents of 23 of the 28 districts in the country. The first hantavirus seroprevalence study in Bulgaria showed that Puumala virus is probably more wide-spread in the country than Dobrava-Belgrade virus.
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 2.) Serological Survey of Zoonotic Viruses in Invasive and Native Commensal Rodents in Senegal, West Africa.
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 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2017.2135. [Epub ahead of print]

 Diagne CA1,2,3, Charbonnel N4, Henttonen H5, Sironen T6, Brouat C1.
 Author information

 1
 1 CBGP, IRD, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, University of Montpellier , Montpellier, France .
 2
 2 BIOPASS (IRD-CBGP, ISRA, UCAD), Dakar, Senegal .
 3
 3 Département de Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD) , Dakar, Senegal .
 4
 4 CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, University of Montpellier , Montpellier, France .
 5
 5 Forest and Animal Ecology, Natural Resources Institute Finland , Helsinki, Finland .
 6
 6 Department of Virology, University of Helsinki , Helsinki, Finland .

 Abstract

 Increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. Such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. Here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the circulation of potentially zoonotic viruses in both invasive (Mus musculus domesticus and Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys natalensis) murine rodent populations in Senegal (West Africa). Of the 672 rodents tested, we reported 22 seropositive tests for Hantavirus, Orthopoxvirus, and Mammarenavirus genera, and no evidence of viral coinfection. This study is the first to report serological detection of Orthopoxvirus in rodents from Senegal, Mammarenavirus in R. rattus from Africa, and Hantavirus in M. m. domesticus and in M. erythroleucus. Further specific identification of the viral agents highlighted here is urgently needed for crucial public health concerns.
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 3.) Seoul hantavirus in brown rats in the Netherlands: implications for physicians--Epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment and diagnostics.
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 Neth J Med. 2015 May;73(4):155-60.

 Goeijenbier M1, Verner-Carlsson J, van Gorp EC, Rockx B, Koopmans MP, Lundkvist Å, van der Giessen JW, Reusken CB.
 Author information

 1
 Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

 Abstract

 The recent discovery of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) presence in wild rat populations in the Netherlands has direct implications for Dutch clinicians and hantavirus diagnostics. SEOV is amongst the Old World hantaviruses which cause haemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. HFRS is characterised by a classical triad of fever, acute kidney injury and haemorrhage, but can show different signs and symptoms in specific cases. SEOV is transmitted from infected rats to humans by inhalation of aerosolised excreta. When compared with the known circulating hantaviruses in the Netherlands, Puumala (PUUV) and Tula (TULV), SEOV causes a more severe form of HFRS. Data from cohort studies undertaken in China and Northern Europe show differences in signs and symptoms at onset of disease, (haemorrhagic) complications and mortality. Furthermore, routine diagnostics currently available for hantavirus diagnosis in the Netherlands are not optimised for SEOV detection. The clinical outcome of an SEOV and PUUV infection will greatly benefit from an early diagnosis which will reduce the costs of unnecessary tests and treatments as well. The discovery of SEOV circulation in the Netherlands follows recent findings of SEOV infections in both rodents and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium and Sweden, indicating the emerging character of SEOV and a high importance of this hantavirus for Public Health in large areas of Europe. Here, we review the current knowledge on the clinical manifestation of SEOV versus PUUV infections in humans, the treatment of clinical cases and diagnostics.
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 4.) Co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba Hantavirus in Brazilian Cerrado.
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 Microb Ecol. 2017 Aug 31. doi: 10.1007/s00248-017-1061-4. [Epub ahead of print]

 Guterres A1,2, de Oliveira RC3, Fernandes J3, Maia RM3, Teixeira BR4, Oliveira FCG5, Bonvicino CR4,6, D'Andrea PS4, Schrago CG7, de Lemos ERS8.
 Author information

 1
 Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Pavilhão Helio e Peggy Pereira - 1° Pav. Sala B115, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil. guterres@ioc.fiocruz.br.
 2
 Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. guterres@ioc.fiocruz.br.
 3
 Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Pavilhão Helio e Peggy Pereira - 1° Pav. Sala B115, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.
 4
 Laboratorio de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Silvestres Reservatórios, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
 5
 Centro Tecnológico de Engenharia LTDA, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.
 6
 Instituto Nacional do Câncer - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
 7
 Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
 8
 Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Pavilhão Helio e Peggy Pereira - 1° Pav. Sala B115, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil. elemos@ioc.fiocruz.br.

 Abstract

 Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging serious disease in the Americas, transmitted from wild rodents to humans through inhalation of aerosol containing virus. Herein, we characterized two distinct hantaviruses circulating in rodent species form Central Plateau, Midwestern region of Brazil in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome, an area characterized by small trees and grasses adapted to climates with long dry periods. In this study, we identified the co-circulation of the Araraquara virus and a possible new lineage of the Juquitiba virus (JUQV) in Oligoryzomys nigripes. The implications of co-circulation are still unknown, but it can be the key for increasing viral diversity or emergence of new species through spillover or host switching events leading to co-infection and consequently recombination or reassortment between different virus species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete S segment indicated that, alongside with Oligoryzomys mattogrossae rodents, O. nigripes species could also have a whole as JUQV reservoir in the Cerrado biome. Although these rodents' species are common in the Cerrado biome, they are not abundant demonstrating how complex and different hantavirus enzootic cycles can be in this particular biome.
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 5.) Serogrouping and seroepidemiology of North European hantaviruses using a novel broadly targeted synthetic nucleoprotein antigen array.
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 Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2017 Jul 26;7(1):1350086. doi: 10.1080/20008686.2017.1350086. eCollection 2017.

 Rönnberg B1,2,3, Vapalahti O4, Goeijenbier M5, Reusken C5, Gustafsson Å3, Blomberg J1,2, Lundkvist Å1,2,3.
 Author information

 1
 Section of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
 2
 Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
 3
 Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
 4
 Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
 5
 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

 Abstract

 Introduction: Hantaviruses are globally distributed zoonotic pathogens. Great diversity and high antigenic cross-reactivity makes diagnosis by traditional methods cumbersome. Materials and methods: 'Megapeptides', 119-120-mers from the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein of 16 hantaviruses, representing the four major branches of the hantavirus phylogenetic tree, were utilized in a novel IgG-based hantavirus suspension multiplex immunoassay (HSMIA) for detection of past hantavirus infections in 155 North European human samples. We compared HSMIA with established EIAs and focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Results and discussion: The Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) component in the HSMIA gave concordant results with a PUUV IgG EIA in 142 sera from Northern Sweden (of which 31 were EIA positive, 7 borderline and 104 EIA negative, sensitivity 30/31 = 97%, specificity 104/ 104 = 100%, 134/135 = 99% concordance), with another immunoassay in 40 PUUV IgG positive sera from Finland (36/40 = 90% sensitivity), and was concordant in 8 of 11 cases with PUUV and DOBV neutralization titers, respectively. Two major IgG reactivity patterns were found: (i) a PUUV-specific pattern covering phylogroup IV and its serogroups B and C; and (ii) a Dobrava virus (DOBV)-specific pattern, covering the serogroup A portion of phylogroup III. In addition, we found several minor patterns with reactivity to only one or two megapeptides indicating additional hantaviruses infecting humans in the Swedish and Finnish populations. Conclusion: The broadly reactive and rational HSMIA yielded results highly correlated with the established PUUV EIAs and the NT results. It is a sensitive and specific assay, which will be suited for efficient serosurveillance of hantaviruses in humans. Its use in animals should be further investigated.
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 6.) [Hantaviruses in Germany: threat for zoo, pet, companion and farm animals?].
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 Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2013 Nov-Dec;126(11-12):514-26.

 [Article in German]
 Ulrich RG1, Imholt C2, Krüger DH3, Krautkrämer E2, Scheibe T4, Essbauer SS5, Pfeffer M6.
 Author information

 1
 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institut für neue und neuartige Tierseuchenerreger, Greifswald - Insel Riems, Deutschland. rainer.ulrich@fli.bund.de
 2
 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institut für neue und neuartige Tierseuchenerreger, Greifswald - Insel Riems, Deutschland.
 3
 Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hantaviren, Institut für Medizinische Virologie, Helmut-Ruska-Haus, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin und Fachbereich Virologie, Labor Berlin Charité Vivantes GmbH.
 4
 Zoo Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Deutschland.
 5
 Institut für Mikrobiologie der Bundeswehr, München, Deutschland.
 6
 Institut fŭr Tierhygiene und Offentliches Veterinärwesen, Leipzig, Deutschland.

 Abstract

 Hantaviruses are so-called "emerging" and "re-emerging" viruses because of the new and sudden nature of their appearance. Human infections can lead to two distinct disease patterns, the Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome. All known human pathogenic hantaviruses are transmitted through rodent hosts. There are three rodent-associated hantaviruses in Germany. The bank vole-associated Puumala virus (PUUV) is responsible for most of the human hantavirus infections. The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) associated with the striped field mouse is causing hantavirus disease in the North and Northeast of Germany. The human pathogenicity of Tula virus (TULV) is still controversially discussed--the virus has been mainly associated with the common vole as the reservoir, but was molecularly detected also in the field and the water vole. More recently, two shrew-borne hantaviruses were described in Germany, i. e. Seewis virus in the common shrew and Asikkala virus in the pygmy shrew. Systematic studies about hantavirus infections of zoo, pet, companion and farm animals are still lacking. Hence, the aim of this review article is to summarise the current knowledge on this topic and raise the attention of veterinarians to potentially overlooked clinical disease patterns.
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 7.) Hantavirus infections in Europe and their impact on public health.
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 Rev Med Virol. 2013 Jan;23(1):35-49. doi: 10.1002/rmv.1722. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

 Vaheri A1, Henttonen H, Voutilainen L, Mustonen J, Sironen T, Vapalahti O.
 Author information

 1
 Department of Virology, Haartman Institute, and Research Programs Unit, Infection Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. antti.vaheri@helsinki.fi

 Abstract

 Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped tri-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses each carried by a specific rodent or insectivore host species. Several different hantaviruses known to infect humans circulate in Europe. The most common is Puumala (PUUV) carried by the bank vole; another two important, genetically closely related ones are Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) and Saaremaa viruses (SAAV) carried by Apodemus mice (species names follow the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses nomenclature). Of the two hantaviral diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantaviral cardiopulmonary syndrome, the European viruses cause only HFRS: DOBV with often severe symptoms and a high case fatality rate, and PUUV and SAAV more often mild disease. More than 10,000 HFRS cases are diagnosed annually in Europe and in increasing numbers. Whether this is because of increasing recognition by the medical community or due to environmental factors such as climate change, or both, is not known. Nevertheless, in large areas of Europe, the population has a considerable seroprevalence but only relatively few HFRS cases are reported. Moreover, no epidemiological data are available from many countries. We know now that cardiac, pulmonary, ocular and hormonal disorders are, besides renal changes, common during the acute stage of PUUV and DOBV infection. About 5% of hospitalized PUUV and 16%-48% of DOBV patients require dialysis and some prolonged intensive-care treatment. Although PUUV-HFRS has a low case fatality rate, complications and long-term hormonal, renal, and cardiovascular consequences commonly occur. No vaccine or specific therapy is in general use in Europe. We conclude that hantaviruses have a significant impact on public health in Europe.
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 8.) Detection of different South American hantaviruses.
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 Guterres A1, de Oliveira RC2, Fernandes J2, Schrago CG3, de Lemos ER2.
 Author information

 1
 Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: guterres@ioc.fiocruz.br.
 2
 Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
 3
 Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

 Abstract

 Hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Old World, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)/Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS), in the New World. Serological methods are the most common approach used for laboratory diagnosis of HCPS, however theses methods do not allow the characterization of viral genotypes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by hantaviruses, enabling detection of few target sequence copies in the sample. However, most studies proposed methods of PCR with species-specific primers. This study developed a simple and reliable diagnostic system by RT-PCR for different hantavirus detection. Using new primers set, we evaluated human and rodent hantavirus positive samples of various regions from Brazil. Besides, we performed computational analyzes to evaluate the detection of other South American hantaviruses. The diagnostic system by PCR proved to be a sensible and simple assay, allowing amplification of Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Laguna Negra virus, Rio Mamore virus and Jabora virus, beyond of the possibility of the detecting Andes, Anajatuba, Bermejo, Choclo, Cano Delgadito, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran, Pergamino and Rio Mearim viruses. The primers sets designed in this study can detect hantaviruses from almost all known genetics lineages in Brazil and from others South America countries and also increases the possibility to detect new hantaviruses. These primers could easily be used both in diagnosis of suspected hantavirus infections in humans and also in studies with animals reservoirs.
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 9.) Spatial prediction and validation of zoonotic hazard through micro-habitat properties: where does Puumala hantavirus hole - up?
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 BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 26;17(1):523. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2618-z.

 Khalil H1, Olsson G2, Magnusson M2, Evander M3, Hörnfeldt B2, Ecke F2,4.
 Author information

 1
 Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden. Hussein.khalil@slu.se.
 2
 Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
 3
 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, Umeå University, 901 85, Umeå, Sweden.
 4
 Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Gerda Nilssons väg 5, 756 51, Uppsala, Sweden.

 Abstract
 BACKGROUND:

 To predict the risk of infectious diseases originating in wildlife, it is important to identify habitats that allow the co-occurrence of pathogens and their hosts. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is a directly-transmitted RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans, and is carried and transmitted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, bank voles undergo 3-4 year population cycles, during which their spatial distribution varies greatly.
 METHODS:

 We used boosted regression trees; a technique inspired by machine learning, on a 10 - year time-series (fall 2003-2013) to develop a spatial predictive model assessing seasonal PUUV hazard using micro-habitat variables in a landscape heavily modified by forestry. We validated the models in an independent study area approx. 200 km away by predicting seasonal presence of infected bank voles in a five-year-period (2007-2010 and 2015).
 RESULTS:

 The distribution of PUUV-infected voles varied seasonally and inter-annually. In spring, micro-habitat variables related to cover and food availability in forests predicted both bank vole and infected bank vole presence. In fall, the presence of PUUV-infected voles was generally restricted to spruce forests where cover was abundant, despite the broad landscape distribution of bank voles in general. We hypothesize that the discrepancy in distribution between infected and uninfected hosts in fall, was related to higher survival of PUUV and/or PUUV-infected voles in the environment, especially where cover is plentiful.
 CONCLUSIONS:

 Moist and mesic old spruce forests, with abundant cover such as large holes and bilberry shrubs, also providing food, were most likely to harbor infected bank voles. The models developed using long-term and spatially extensive data can be extrapolated to other areas in northern Fennoscandia. To predict the hazard of directly transmitted zoonoses in areas with unknown risk status, models based on micro-habitat variables and developed through machine learning techniques in well-studied systems, could be used.
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 10.) Hantaviruses and their hosts in Europe: reservoirs here and there, but not everywhere?
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 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010 Aug;10(6):549-61. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2009.0138.

 Olsson GE1, Leirs H, Henttonen H.
 Author information

 1
 Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden. gert.olsson@vfm.slu.se

 Abstract

 Five hantaviruses are known to circulate among rodents in Europe, and at least two among insectivores. Four (Dobrava, Saaremaa, Seoul, and Puumala [PUUV] viruses) are clearly associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). PUUV, the most common etiological agent of HFRS in Europe, is carried by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), one of the most widespread and abundant mammal species in Europe. This host-virus system is among hantaviruses also the most studied one in Europe. However, HFRS incidence varies throughout the continent. The spatial as well as temporal variation in the occurrence of HFRS is linked to geographic differences in the population dynamics of the reservoir rodents in different biomes of Europe. While rodent abundance may follow mast seeding events in many parts of temperate Europe, in northern (N) Europe multiannual cycles in population density exist as the result of the interaction between rodent populations and specialist predator populations in a delayed density-dependent manner. The spatial distribution of hantaviruses further depends on parameters such as forest patch size and connectivity of the most suitable rodent habitats, and the conditions for the survival of the virus outside the host, as well as historical distribution patterns (phylogeographies) of hosts and viruses. In multiannually fluctuating populations of rodents, with population increases of great amplitude, one should expect a simultaneous build-up of recently hantavirus-infected (shedding) rodents. The increasing number of infectious, virus-shedding rodents leads to a rapid transmission of hantavirus across the rodent population, and to humans. Our review discusses these aspects for PUUV, the only European hantavirus for which there is a reasonable, yet still far from complete, ecological continental-wide understanding. We discuss how this information could translate to other European hantavirus-host systems, and where the most important questions lie for further research.
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 11.) Habitat factors associated with bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and concomitant hantavirus in northern Sweden.
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 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005 Winter;5(4):315-23.

 Olsson GE1, White N, Hjältén J, Ahlm C.
 Author information

 1
 Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden. Gert.Olsson@smi.ki.se

 Abstract

 Puumala virus (PUUV), genus hantavirus, causes nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. In this study, bank voles, the natural reservoir of PUUV, were captured at locations of previous human PUUV exposure and paired controls within a region of high incidence in northern Sweden. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of bank voles and the occurrence of PUUV. The total number of voles and the number of PUUV-infected voles did not differ between locations of previous human PUUV exposure and paired controls. The number of bank voles expressing antibodies to PUUV infection increased linearly with total bank vole abundance implying density independent transmission. Using principal component and partial correlation analysis, we found that particular environmental characteristics associated with old-growth moist forests (i.e., those dominated by Alectoria spp., Picea abies, fallen wood, and Vaccinium myrtillus) were also associated with increased abundance of bank vole and hence the number of PUUV-infected bank voles, whereas there were no correlations with factors associated with dry environments (i.e., Pinus sylvestris and V. vitis-idea). This suggests that circulation and persistence of PUUV within bank vole populations was influenced by habitat factors. Future modeling of risk of exposure to hantavirus and transmission of PUUV within vole populations should include the influence of these factors.
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 12.) [Increase in the number of cases of epidemic nephropathy in Germany. Virological and
 ecological aspects].
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 Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2008 Mar;133(10):476-8. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1046736.

 [Article in German]
 Krautkrämer E1, Zeier M.
 Author information

 1
 Nephrologie, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 162, 69120 Heidelberg. ellen_krautrkaemer@med.uni-heidelberg.de

 Abstract

 Epidemic nephropathy (EN) is transmitted to humans via rodents. The causative agent of this virus-borne renal disease is the Hantavirus Puumala. Other members of the genus Hantavirus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (HPS). As with all zoonoses the prevalence of the virus depends on the distribution of the reservoir species. Climate changes have direct impact on the number of host animals and influence the incidence of hantaviral infections. A number of studies demonstrate the epidemiological relationship between climate, food supply, rodent population and outbreaks of HFRS and HPS. In Germany the number of cases of EN has increased in the past few years and huge rise in the incidence of the infection, more than 1600 cases, occurred in 2007.
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 13.) A comparative epidemiological study of hantavirus infection in Japan and Far East Russia.
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 Jpn J Vet Res. 2007 Feb;54(4):145-61.

 Kariwa H1, Lokugamage K, Lokugamage N, Miyamoto H, Yoshii K, Nakauchi M, Yoshimatsu K, Arikawa J, Ivanov LI, Iwasaki T, Takashima I.
 Author information

 1
 Laboratory of Public Health, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. kariwa@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp

 Abstract

 Hantaviruses are causative agents of some severe human illnesses, including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The viruses are maintained by rodent hosts, and humans acquire infection by inhaling virus-contaminated excreta from infected animals. To examine the epidemiology of hantavirus infections in Japan and Far East Russia, we conducted epidemiological surveys in these regions. In Japan, anti-hantavirus antibodies were found in four rodent species, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and Apodemus speciosus. Although no new HFRS cases have been officially reported over the past 20 years in Japan, one member of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force did test positive for hantavirus antibody. Repeated surveys in Far East Russia have revealed that two distinct hantavirus types cause severe HFRS in this region. Hantavirus sequences identified from A. peninsulae, fetal HFRS cases in Vladivostok, and Amur virus are highly similar to each other (> 92% identity), but they are less similar (approximately 84% identity) to the prototypical Hantaan virus, which is carried by A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis also indicates that Amur and A. peninsulae-associated viruses are distinct from Hantaan virus, suggesting that A. peninsulae is the reservoir animal for Amur virus, which causes severe HFRS. From HFRS patients in the Khabarovsk region, we identified viruses with nucleotide sequences that are more similar to Far East virus (> 96%identity) than to the Hantaan (88-89% identity) or Amur (81-83% identity) viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicates that the viruses from Khabarovsk HFRS patients are closely related to the Far East virus, and distinct from Amur virus.
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 14.) Puumala virus outbreak in Western Thuringia, Germany, 2010: epidemiology and strain identification.
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 Zoonoses Public Health. 2013 Dec;60(8):549-54. doi: 10.1111/zph.12037. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

 Faber M1, Wollny T, Schlegel M, Wanka KM, Thiel J, Frank C, Rimek D, Ulrich RG, Stark K.
 Author information

 1
 Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

 Abstract

 In 2010, the highest annual number of human Puumala virus (PUUV) infections was reported in Germany since hantavirus surveillance started in 2001. The increase in annual case numbers was especially marked in western Thuringia. We combined results of case-based hantavirus surveillance in humans and serological and molecular investigations in the rodent reservoir to describe the epidemiological situation and to identify the putative outbreak strain. A 5-fold increase in notified hantavirus cases compared to the previous annual maximum was observed in western Thuringia in 2010. Disease incidence varied tremendously within a small geographical area with case patients' places of residence clustering around beech-dominated broad leaf forest patches. Investigations in the rodent reservoir revealed a novel Puumala virus (PUUV) subtype, which is clearly distinct from strains collected in other PUUV endemic regions of Germany. It can be assumed that in regions in western Thuringia where hantavirus cases occurred in 2010 or previous outbreak years, PUUV has been present in the environment for a long time. Further studies are needed to elucidate the population dynamics and hantavirus prevalence of the rodent reservoir and driving ecological factors.
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 15.) Environmental conditions in favour of a hantavirus outbreak in 2015 in Germany?
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 Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 Mar;63(2):83-8. doi: 10.1111/zph.12217. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

 Reil D1,2, Imholt C1, Drewes S3, Ulrich RG3, Eccard JA2, Jacob J1.
 Author information

 1
 Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests, Münster, Germany.
 2
 University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam, Germany.
 3
 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald - Insel Riems, Germany.

 Abstract

 Bank voles can harbour Puumala virus (PUUV) and vole populations usually peak in years after beech mast. A beech mast occurred in 2014 and a predictive model indicates high vole abundance in 2015. This pattern is similar to the years 2009/2011 when beech mast occurred, bank voles multiplied and human PUUV infections increased a year later. Given similar environmental conditions in 2014/2015, increased risk of human PUUV infections in 2015 is likely. Risk management measures are recommended.

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 16.) Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Caused by Maripa Virus in French Guiana, 2008–2016
 ===============================================================
 S. Matheus et al.

 View Abstract

 We report 5 human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome found during surveillance in French Guiana in 2008–2016; of the 5 patients, 4 died. This pathogen should continue to be monitored in humans and rodents in effort to reduce the occurrence of these lethal l infections in humans stemming from ecosystem disturbances.
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 17.) An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: person-to-person transmission? Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia.
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 Emerg Infect Dis. 1997 Apr-Jun;3(2):171-4.

 Wells RM1, Sosa Estani S, Yadon ZE, Enria D, Padula P, Pini N, Mills JN, Peters CJ, Segura EL.
 Author information
 1
 Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
 Abstract
 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a rodent-borne zoonosis first recognized in the United States in 1993. Person-to-person transmission has not been reported; however, in the outbreak of 20 cases reported here, epidemiologic evidence strongly suggests this route of transmission.
 
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